Spinal cord injuries causes myelopathy or damage to white matter or myelinated fiber tracts that carry signals to and from the brain. It also damages gray matter in the central part of the spine, causing segmental losses of interneurons and motorneurons. Spinal cord injury can occur from many causes, including:
- Trauma such as automobile crashes, falls, gunshots, diving accidents, war injuries, etc.
- Tumor such as right, ependymomas, astrocytomas, and metastatic cancer.
- Ischemia resulting from occlusion of spinal blood vessels, including dissecting aortic aneurysms, emboli, arteriosclerosis.
- Developmental disorders, such as spina bifida, meningomyolcoele, and other.
- Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Friedreich’s ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxia, etc.
- Demyelinative diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis.
- Transverse myelitis, resulting from spinal cord stroke, inflammation, or other causes.
- Vascular malformations, such as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF), spinal hemangioma, cavernous angioma and aneurysm.