Bronchitis is an inflammation of the air passages within the lungs. It occurs when the trachea (windpipe) and the large and small bronchi (airways) within the lungs become inflamed because of infection or other causes.




Tuberculosis (TB), also called “white plaque” or “consumption” is a higly communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually involves the lungs, but also occurs in the kidneys, bones, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, and meninges, and can be disseminated throughout ht e body. When TB involves the lungs, it can be referred to as either TB infection or TB disease. TB infection occurs when the Myobacterium tuberculosis enters the body, multiples, and the body’s immune system contains it (the usual response). TB disease occurs when the infection progresses to disease and the patint becomes clinically ill (active TB).


Diagnosis in TB is commonly delayed in older adults because the typical presenting symptoms such as fever and night sweats aren’t commonly seen. With age, diaphoresis decreases and alterations in body temperature commonly occur. These factors highlight the importance of periodic screening for older adults. All older patients entering hospital and any community of older people, such as those in senior center, should be tested with two-step Mantoux test.

Lung Cancer


Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. The vast majority of primary lung cancers are carcinomas of the lung, derived from epithelial cells. Lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and the second most common in women (after breast cancer), is responsible for 1.3 million deaths worldwide annually. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing (including coughing up blood), and weight loss.

The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. This distinction is important, because the treatment varies; non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is sometimes treated with surgery, while small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation. The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. The occurrence of lung cancer in nonsmokers, who account for as many as 15% of cases , is often attributed to a combination of genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution, including secondhand smoke.