Bronchitis is an inflammation of the air passages within the lungs. It occurs when the trachea (windpipe) and the large and small bronchi (airways) within the lungs become inflamed because of infection or other causes.




Tuberculosis (TB), also called “white plaque” or “consumption” is a higly communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually involves the lungs, but also occurs in the kidneys, bones, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, and meninges, and can be disseminated throughout ht e body. When TB involves the lungs, it can be referred to as either TB infection or TB disease. TB infection occurs when the Myobacterium tuberculosis enters the body, multiples, and the body’s immune system contains it (the usual response). TB disease occurs when the infection progresses to disease and the patint becomes clinically ill (active TB).


Diagnosis in TB is commonly delayed in older adults because the typical presenting symptoms such as fever and night sweats aren’t commonly seen. With age, diaphoresis decreases and alterations in body temperature commonly occur. These factors highlight the importance of periodic screening for older adults. All older patients entering hospital and any community of older people, such as those in senior center, should be tested with two-step Mantoux test.

Spinal Cord Injuries


Spinal cord injuries causes myelopathy or damage to white matter or myelinated fiber tracts that carry signals to and from the brain.  It also damages gray matter in the central part of the spine, causing segmental losses of interneurons and motorneurons. Spinal cord injury can occur from many causes, including:

  • Trauma such as automobile crashes, falls, gunshots, diving accidents, war injuries, etc.
  • Tumor such as right, ependymomas, astrocytomas, and metastatic cancer.
  • Ischemia resulting from occlusion of spinal blood vessels, including dissecting aortic aneurysms, emboli, arteriosclerosis.
  • Developmental disorders, such as spina bifida, meningomyolcoele, and other.
  • Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Friedreich’s ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxia, etc.
  • Demyelinative diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis.
  • Transverse myelitis, resulting from spinal cord stroke, inflammation, or other causes.
  • Vascular malformations, such as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF), spinal hemangioma, cavernous angioma and aneurysm.



Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) is a chronic, multi system disease involving connective tissue that appears to result from production of autoantibodies. Immune complexes and other immune system constituents combine to form complement that is deposited in organs, causing inflammation and tissue necrosis. The disease may be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis, especially in early course of the disease. Course of the disease is highly variable, but complications of SLE include infection, renal failure, permanent neurologic impairment, and death. The disease is more common on women than men, usually women at childbearing age, but can affect children age 5 to 15.

Lung Cancer


Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. The vast majority of primary lung cancers are carcinomas of the lung, derived from epithelial cells. Lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and the second most common in women (after breast cancer), is responsible for 1.3 million deaths worldwide annually. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing (including coughing up blood), and weight loss.

The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. This distinction is important, because the treatment varies; non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is sometimes treated with surgery, while small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation. The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. The occurrence of lung cancer in nonsmokers, who account for as many as 15% of cases , is often attributed to a combination of genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution, including secondhand smoke.

Hirschsprung’s Disease


Hirschsprung’s disease (Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon) is the congenital absence of or arrested development of parasympathetic ganglion cells in the intestinal wall, usually in the distal colon.

Signs and symptoms may vary with the severity of the condition. Sometimes they appear right after the baby is born. Other times they may not be apparent until the baby becomes a teenager or adult. In newborns, signs may include:

  • Failure to pass stool within the first or second day of life
  • Vomiting, including vomiting a green liquid called bile — a digestive fluid produced in the liver
  • Constipation or gas, which may make a newborn fussy

In older children, signs can include:

  • Swollen abdomen
  • Lack of weight gain
  • Problems absorbing nutrients, leading to weight loss, diarrhea or both and delayed or slowed growth
  • Infections in the colon, especially in newborns or very young children, that may include enterocolitis, a serious infection with diarrhea, fever and vomiting and sometimes a dangerous expanding (dilation) of the colon

In older children or adults, signs may include chronic constipation and a low number of red blood cells (anemia) because blood is lost in the stool.

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin, an anabolic hormone. Type 1 diabetes mellitus can occur at any age and is characterized by the marked and progressive inability of the pancreas to secrete insulin because of autoimmune destruction of the beta cells. It commonly occurs in children, with a fairly abrupt onset; however, newer antibody tests have allowed for the identification of more people with the new-onset adult form of type 1 diabetes mellitus called latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA). The distinguishing characteristic of a patient with type 1 diabetes is that, if his or her insulin is withdrawn, ketosis and eventually ketoacidosis develop. Therefore, these patients are dependent on exogenous insulin.

Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for 5% to 10% of all people with diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need to produce energy.

The following symptoms have abrupt onset. People with type 1 diabetes are
diagnosed quickly.

  • Extreme thirst
  • frequent urination
  • drowsiness
  • lethargy
  • increased appetite
  • sudden weight loss for no reason
  • sudden vision changes
  • sugar in urine
  • ketones in urine
  • heavy or laboured breathing
  • unconsciousness

Cerebrovascular Accident


Cerebrovascular accident is the term that refers to any functional abnormality of the Central Nervous System that occurs when the normal blood supply to the brain is disrupted, as by a blood clot or a ruptured blood vessel, and vital brain tissue dies. Cerebrovascular accident is commonly called Strokes.

Cerebrovascular accident may be caused by any of three mechanisms.

  • Cerebral Thrombosis – blockage in the thrombus (clot) that has built up on the wall of the brain artery.
  • Cerebral Embolism – blockage by an embolus (usually a clot) swept into the artery in the brain.
  • Hemorrhage – Rupture of a blood vessel and bleeding within or over the surface of the brain.

Crohns Disease


Crohn’s disease is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the small intestine (60%), the colon (20%), or both. It involves all layers of the bowel but most commonly involves the terminal ileum. It is slowly progressive and recurrent disease with predominant involvement of multiple regions of the intestine with normal sections between. Chronic, nonspecific inflammation of the entire intestinal tract characterizes the disease, with the terminal ileum the site most affected. Eventually deep fissures and ulcerations develop and often extend through all bowel layers fistulas.



Amoebiasis is a infectious disease caused by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. It is a parasitic infection of the large intestine and characterized by non specific diarrhea with loose, semi formed, foul smelling stools, or dysentery with mucous, traces of blood and small quantities of stools passed repeatedly. Often there is an ineffectual urge to defecate again and again, with very little stool actually being passed. There is much flatulence with abdominal cramps. In severe cases, the liver and other organs may get affected, causing specific conditions related to organ, e.g., hepatitis, cysts, abscess, etc. The most common symptoms of amoebiasis are diarrhea (which may contain blood), stomach cramps and fever.